What protects car sensors from damage caused by debris and heat?

What protects car sensors from damage caused by debris and heat?
Experienced mechanics share their insights in answering this question :
The automotive industry uses a coating called Parylene for almost every sensor on the engine. Parylene is a very tough coating used in many electronics, not just for automotive use.

Parylene conformal coatings are ultra-thin, pinhole-free polymer coatings that provide a number of high-value surface treatment properties such as excellent moisture, chemical and dielectric barrier properties, thermal and UV stability, and dry-film lubricity. These properties make SCS Parylene coatings the ideal choice for a number of applications throughout the medical device, electronics, automotive, military, and aerospace industries.

Parylene coatings for the automotive industry provide sensitive electronics and other components long-lasting protection from moisture, corrosion, fumes, chemicals, dust, solvents, temperature, and more. Automotive engineers who require barrier protection and dielectric insulation in an ultra-thin conformal coating turn to Parylene.

Parylene forms an ultra-thin polymer layer on almost any substrate with superior crevice and multi-layer penetration, and with its unsurpassed barrier protection, automotive Parylene is used in a variety of applications. For example, the gold wires used in some sensors is often coated with Parylene. Other times, whole sensors are coated in Parylene.

Unlike some other coatings, Parylene is also extremely tough. It can easily withstand the cold of a car parked outside during a Minnesota winter, the heat of an interior exposed to the Arizona sun in summer, or the temperature of an engine’s combustion chamber. The coating is also so chemically inert that it can withstand exposure to brake fluid, antifreeze, salt, air, and even automotive chemicals with solvent properties like gasoline.

When you buy new sensors to replace the old ones, they sometimes have little of the Parylene coating, or none at all, depending on the product you purchase; this could lead to premature failure. There is no way of knowing by looking at the sensor if it is on there or not; just remember you get what you pay for.

How to Identify and Fix Common car Problems ?

Our sources include academic articles, blog posts, and personal essays from experienced mechanics :

A mass (air) flow sensor (MAF) is a sensor used to determine the mass flow rate of air entering a fuel-injected internal combustion engine.
Mounted in the air intake duct or air filter housing, a MAF sensor detects the air density as it heads into the engine intake to be mixed with fuel, noted autoguru.com.au. On the other hand, the oxygen sensor monitors how much unburned oxygen is present in the exhaust as exhaust exits the engine.
The result is improved engine performance and fuel economy. The MAF sensor also helps to ensure that the engine operates within safe parameters by monitoring the air/fuel ratio. If the air/fuel ratio is too rich (too much fuel), the MAF sensor will send a signal to the ECU to adjust the fuel injection accordingly.
A mass airflow sensor for a BMW measures the oxygen flowing to your engine for the perfect air-to-fuel ratio. The mass airflow sensor increases the efficiency of your engine, resulting in optimized performance and enhanced fuel economy. Modern cars use a hot-wire type of airflow sensor.
What`s the difference between a MAP and a MAF sensor? A MAF sensor measures how much air is aspired by the engine. A MAP sensor, on the other hand, provides a measurement of the air pressure in the intake manifold. The ECU uses this information to calculate the amount of air that needs to be aspired.
Air flow sensors and air flow meters are suitable for the measurement and control of air flows in ventilation and air-conditioning. Air flow sensors are easy to install and measure the total pressure, the static pressure of the air flow and the average air velocity.
How many sensors does a car have? The car engine alone has around 15 to 30 sensors that track all functions of the engine. In total, a car can have over 70 sensors that monitor various aspects of the vehicle.
A bad MAF sensor can cause your vehicle to experience poor drivability issues such as engine stalling, jerking or hesitation during acceleration. This could happen while speeding up on the highway on-ramp or cruising down a city street. These issues can create dangerous situations causing accidents and injury.
A bad MAF sensor can cause too much fuel to be left in the combustion chamber, creating untimed detonations. You`ll experience this as poor drivability such as hesitations or sudden jerking motions, particularly during acceleration.
Without a proper signal from the mass air flow sensor, the powertrain control module (PCM), which manages the engine, transmission, and other systems in your car, won`t know how much fuel the engine needs. This can either cause the engine to run too lean (too little fuel) or too rich (too much fuel).

Relevant Questions and Answers :

the most relevant questions and answers related to your specific issue

What protects car sensors from damage caused by debris and heat?
ANSWER : The automotive industry uses a coating called Parylene for almost every sensor on the engine. Parylene is a very tough coating used in many electronics, not just for automotive use.

Parylene conformal coatings are ultra-thin, pinhole-free polymer coatings that provide a number of high-value surface treatment properties such as excellent moisture, chemical and dielectric barrier properties, thermal and UV stability, and dry-film lubricity. These properties make SCS Parylene coatings the ideal choice for a number of applications throughout the medical device, electronics, automotive, military, and aerospace industries.

Parylene coatings for the automotive industry provide sensitive electronics and other components long-lasting protection from moisture, corrosion, fumes, chemicals, dust, solvents, temperature, and more. Automotive engineers who require barrier protection and dielectric insulation in an ultra-thin conformal coating turn to Parylene.

Parylene forms an ultra-thin polymer layer on almost any substrate with superior crevice and multi-layer penetration, and with its unsurpassed barrier protection, automotive Parylene is used in a variety of applications. For example, the gold wires used in some sensors is often coated with Parylene. Other times, whole sensors are coated in Parylene.

Unlike some other coatings, Parylene is also extremely tough. It can easily withstand the cold of a car parked outside during a Minnesota winter, the heat of an interior exposed to the Arizona sun in summer, or the temperature of an engine’s combustion chamber. The coating is also so chemically inert that it can withstand exposure to brake fluid, antifreeze, salt, air, and even automotive chemicals with solvent properties like gasoline.

When you buy new sensors to replace the old ones, they sometimes have little of the Parylene coating, or none at all, depending on the product you purchase; this could lead to premature failure. There is no way of knowing by looking at the sensor if it is on there or not; just remember you get what you pay for.

A/C and heat are not working properly. Car blows heat in summer and cool air in winter.
ANSWER : Common causes of no cabin heat include malfunctioning blend door(s) (part of the in-dash ventilation network), a faulty or stuck heater control valve, a plugged heater core, stuck open engine cooling thermostat, collapsed hoses, and low coolant level. The cost to resolve the problem depends on which of the foregoing faults is the cause. If you desire a diagnostic to determine exactly why there is no cabin heat, please request a non functioning cabin heater diagnostic and the responding mechanic will come right to your location and get this resolved for you promptly.

With regard to your air conditioning system, if merely re-charging the system restored normal operation but the a/c ceased to function after a month or so, that scenario typically suggests a leak. Some leaks are really cheap to repair, like if a couple o-rings need to be replaced in system piping but if the leak is at the compressor shaft seal, that repair is more costly. It is not expensive to find the leak and diagnose the system and once the leak is found the mechanic can let you know of the exact cost to repair the leak and re-charge the system. If you desire that service please request an a/c system diagnostic – suspected refrigerant leak and the responding certified mechanic will get this taken care of for you. If you have further questions or concerns, do not hesitate to re-contact YourMechanic as we are always here to help you

My car is over heating. It doesn’t take long for it to over heat till it is smoking and I have to turn the car off.
ANSWER : There are a couple of possibilities for such a rapid overheating situation. The thermostat may have failed in the "closed" position preventing the hot water from circulating and cooling in the radiator. The water pump or the serpentine drive belt may have failed and the hot water does not get circulated through the radiator.

If one of the head gaskets on the engine has failed, combustion gasses from one or more cylinders can "superheat" engine coolant very quickly. If the coolant level is low and there are air pockets in the engine, the coolant is literally "boiled away" inside the engine, creating far higher temperatures than an engine that is "full of coolant".

It is recommended that you get a mobile, professional mechanic, such as one from YourMechanic, to perform an inspection and determine the cause of the overheating.

Map sensor car won’t start up good ?
ANSWER : Your MAP sensor is an important input for your computer. It helps determine the load on the engine to calculate the correct amount of fuel to inject. It sometimes takes a few seconds for the vehicle to realize that the sensor is not producing a good signal.

At that point, it will use other methods to determine the fuel rate, such as pre-programmed fuel maps, throttle position, etc. I would suggest replacing the MAP sensor and retesting. If you would like to have it checked first, a certified technician from YourMechanic will be able to scan your vehicle and test components to determine the root cause of your starting issue before making a repair.

When the car heats up the brakes squeak. When the car cools down they’re fine, but when it heats up they start squeaking again.
ANSWER : Hi, thanks for writing in. Pads and rotors can become "glazed" if overheated. If this happens, the bonding material in the brake pads can rise up out of the pads and transfer to the rotors, causing a bluish discoloration to the rotors and cause a squeak. Removing the pads, sanding the surface of them and the rotors may help. If not, a light resurfacing of the rotors and using some brake lube on the backs of the pads should help. If you would like help, consider having an expert automotive technician from YourMechanic come to your home or office to inspect your brake system for you, and make or suggest any repairs or cleaning as needed.

My heat in my car stopped working two days ago and now my car is overheating. I put antifreeze in my car and it’s still overheating 2006 Pontiac Grand Prix
ANSWER : Hi there – you may have 2 related events here, a coolant leak, and a problem with the heater system. The current issue may be air inside the cooling system, which can cause overheating, and a lack of heater function. The lack of heater function could have 5 causes: the engine is not getting up to correct temperature (center of the gauge) due to a malfunctioning thermostat, the heater control valve is not letting hot coolant into the heater core, there is a restriction in the heater system that is preventing adequate hot coolant flow through the heater core, the heater fan is not working to transfer heat from the heater core to warm air for the passenger compartment, or the air blend doors inside the heater are not working properly to route warm air to the desired vents. I would recommend a heater system inspection](https://www.yourmechanic.com/services/heater-is-not-working-inspection) by a mobile, professional mechanic, such as one from YourMechanic, who will come to your location, diagnose this problem, give you an accurate assessment of damage and cost estimate for repairs.

Car won’t drive after over heating on the highway
ANSWER : Hi there. Most of the time when you overheat this engine it will also cause the transmission to get too hot. When this occurs it can easily cause transmission failure. I would suspect this if the vehicle does not move at all. If it move but is severely lacking power then you either have some serious internal engine damage or a failure in the catalytic converter from the overheating. It sounds like it is the transmission though. I would recommend having a transmission specialist take a look at it.

Suppose my car has temperature sensors, and if my car ignition is off, then it will allow me to connect my car to a mobile app
ANSWER : Hello, an app for accessing your car temp sensors (whether engine coolant or ambient air temp), will require access to the cars electronics through the OBD-II port, and a programmable communications device. The OBD-II port, and any temperature sensors on the vehicle are powered only while the ignition is in the Run/Start positions. To do what you are suggesting will require pretty much a stand-alone monitor and report piece of hardware, or a function driven by a wake-on-command facility using something like OnStar to retrieve temperature data.